3. Obesity 2012;2012:14. Compared with the gut microbiome of. 2010 November 01;59(11):2772-2780. Nature 2011 12 May; 473:174- Independently of diet, the gut microbiota is able to influence host inflammatory responses. Wu G, Chen J, Hoffman C, Bittinger K, Chen Y, Keilbaugh S, et al. Mounting evidence indicates that the gut microbiome responds to diet, antibiotics, and other external stimuli with speed and high precision and in ways that impact a variety of metabolic conditions including obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Linking prausnitzii in obese Indian children. This glycoprotein inhibits lipoprotein lipase production in adipose tissue and modulates fatty acid oxidation in both adipocytes and skeletal muscle (12). Human nutrition, gut microbiome and immune system, Microbial ecology of gut symbiotic systems, No public clipboards found for this slide, Student at Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute. The gut microbiota improves energy extraction from the diet, modulates plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which may begin a chronic low-grade inflammation, leading to obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and modulates some host genes and proteins that regulate the stock and energy expenditure (10, 116). Obesity is an altered health condition, which is a resultant of irregular energy intake and energy balance, changes in gut microbiota, and improper diet with the influence of genetic makeup and environmental factors. A healthy gut is the sign of healthy life The composition of the gut microbiota has received attention as an etiological factor in the development of obesity. Gut microbiota have been implicated in the regulation of body weight. and SCFA in Lean and Overweight Healthy Subjects. Angptl4/Fiaf Is a Novel Regulator of Food Intake and Body Weight. Recent work has been highlighting an increasingly more important role of gut microbiota in metabolic disorders. Tables. The composition and function of the gut microbiome have been associated with obesity in humans. Between 1,000 and 1,150 bacterial species have potential to colonise the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract, with each individual harbouring around 160 different species (1). 1. Singh et al. Department of Agricultural Biotechnology. References. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Gut microbiota interactions with The gut microbiota affects numerous biological functions throughout the body and its characterisation has become a major research area in biomedicine. Authors and Disclosures Author Karine Clement, MD, … Journal of Harris K, Kassis A, Geneviève M, Chieh C. Is the Gut Microbiota a New gut microbiome, diet, and human health Thursday, June 14 1pm EST / 10am PST a webinar offering from. The gut microbiome can be viewed as a “microbial organ”—one that is sensitive to environmental, dietary, and host factors—with its functions intricately intertwined with host physiology and pathophysiology. When CD14 -/- rats were infused with LPS, no weight gain occurred (7). 2009;18(1):190-195. Gut microbiota and obesity Karina Al-Assal*, Ana Cristina Martinez, Raquel Susana Torrinhas, Camila Cardinelli, Dan Waitzberg Laboratoryof Nutrition and Metabolic Surgery (LIM 35), Department of Gastroenterology, University of S~ao Paulo, School of Medicine, Brazil article info Article history: Received 20 March 2018 Accepted 22 March 2018 Available online 29 March 2018 summary Obesity … In one experiment, scientists were assessing how the gut microbiome and factors involved in metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, blood pressure and insulin resistance were affected by mice lacking TLR5. PRECLINICAL RESEARCH CLINICAL APPLICATION ? gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing. After absorbed, … The gut microbiota and obesity Hervé M. Blottière portance outside the gut, especially after the pioneering work of Gordon and collaborators [1]. Energy recovery from fiber will be largely determined by dietary intake and gut transit, but can also depend on the makeup of the gut microbiota. This effect may increase the difficulty to lose weight and make it easier to relapse after weight loss, even with a normal diet. 180. 1. Gut Microbiota A healthy gut is the sign of healthy life Saurav Das Department of Agricultural Biotechnology ... OBESITY Obesity is a medical condition of excess fat accumulation which has adverse health effect and reduced life expectancy. 2. Recently, the development of molecular tools and subsequently of next-generation sequencing enabled the richness of the intestinal ecosys-tem to be revealed [2]. u Describe the rationale for implementing Lifestyle Medicine approaches to improve the health and well-being of our active duty military service members and veterans. Several recent science studies have claimed that the gut microbiome -- the diverse array of bacteria that live in the stomach and intestines -- may be to blame for obesity. The bacterial components of Gram-negative bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), trigger innate immune responses in the host which can lead to weight gain (6). John Gordon et al. 2014 Oct;124(10):4204-11. doi: 10.1172/JCI72331. Nature 2006;444:1022-1023. : The contributory role of gut microbiota in cardiovascular disease. Care September 2011;14(5):483-490. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Gut microbiota, obesity and related metabolic disorders (Linking arguments) ENERGY HARVEST . Saurav Das 9. GF mice are protected against obesity in a Western diet setting.11 Independent of daily food intake, Bäckhed et al reported a 60% increase in body fat, hepatic triglycerides and insulin resistance in conventionalised adult GF mice compared with GF mice, notably due to better absorption of monosaccharides.12 Interestingly, the transfer of gut microbiota from ob/ob mice to GF mice results … Animal and human studies have implicated distortion of the normal microbial balance in obesity and metabolic syndrome. T: +44 (0)20 3019 5901, Catherine Graham, Kevin Whelan & Anne Mullen, Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, School of Medicine, King’s College London, UK, Studying immunology at undergraduate level, Studying immunology at postgraduate level, EFIS Young Immunologists Task Force (yEFIS). The effects of weight loss on qualitative aspects of gut microbiota have been studied in humans and mice, but these studies have been confounded by concurrent changes in diet composition, which influence microbial community composition. Obesity and its associated complications like type 2 diabetes (T2D) are reaching epidemic stages. Studies have shown that individuals with obesity have created an “obesity signature” inside their gut microbiome that has shaped how their metabolism functions. Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Several studies revealed the influence of probiotic supplementation on obesity-associated consequences in vitro , in vivo , and in human clinical studies. Diet modification of the gut microbiome influences obesity. Bacteria causing weight gain are thought to induce the expression of genes rel … Potential role of gut microbiota on obesity development. 13. Human gut microbiota: role in people’s health . Ley R, Turnbaugh P, Klein S, Gordon J. Microbial ecology: Human gut 12. Science Cani P, Amar J, M. A. Iglesias M, Poggi M, Knauf C, Bastelica D, et al. long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes. Esteve E, Ricart W, Fernández-Real J. 2007;56(7):1761-1772. inflammatory diseases. inflammation and gut barrier functions in humanized obesity models 3.To identify the mechanism by which the intestinal microbiota, derived metabolites and specific key (core) bacteria interact with host endocrine gut functions influencing obesity 4.To evaluate the role of protein-derived bacterial metabolites on gut immunity and epithelial • Be present in all cases of the disease • Be isolated from diseased patients • Cause disease when reintroduced to a healthy susceptible animal model • Be isolated again from the new host V.P. Here, we aimed to explore the gut microbiome and memory domains according to obesity status. Presentation Summary : Obesity and gut microbiota. Some mechanisms have been proposed to explain the role of gut microbiota in obesity development. Download Powerpoint; Temporal and spatial microbiome dynamics in obesity (A) The microbiome undergoes oscillations in composition, functional activity, and localization over the course of a day. Recent studies have suggested that gut bacteria play a fundamental role in diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In much the same way, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice, which are unable to respond to LPS, are protected from high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance (8). The Journal of Clinical obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: did gut microbiote co-evolve Inflammation in High-Fat Diet–Induced Obesity and Diabetes in Mice. Variation in gut microbiome is associated with wellness and disease in humans, and yet the molecular mechanisms by which this variation affects the host are not well understood. there are differences in the gut microbiota composition between obese and non-obese individuals. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. Modulation PYY GHRELIN PREBIOTICS and MICROBIOTA (Bifidobacter) Delzenne, 2011 (n=15; doppio ceco) 30 PtsPts 30 Control Placebo (Maltodestrine) … A likely mechanism is that of changing gene regulation in interfacing host epithelial cells. These diurnal patterns are aberrant in obesity. Gut Microbiota and Obesity 47. The gut microbiome consists of trillions of bacteria which play an important role in human metabolism. The gut microbiome has been linked to fear extinction learning in animal models. immunity and fatty acid–induced insulin resistance. An obesogenic microbiota may manipulate host gene function, leading to increased adiposity and inflammatory mechanisms resulting in metabolic endotoxemia and metabolic dysfunction. Increased food intake and lack of exercise are two main contributing factors. 5. Diabetes Some GI bacteria can suppress host Fasting-Induced Adiposity Factor (Fiaf) and tight junction proteins such as ZO-1 and occludin expressed in the intestinal epithelia. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. 7. Gut microbiota and obesity (microbiota, obesity, prebiotics) Renata Barczyńska Institute of Chemistry, Environmental Protection and Biotechnology, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Poland (e-mail: r.barczynska@gmail.com) The etiology of obesity reflects complex interactions among genetic and environmental factors, with current high energy diets and sedentary lifestyle considered to be fo Gut Microbiota imbalances of the gut microbiota, there is little evidence of an effect in healthy individuals,” 28. Diabetes You can change your ad preferences anytime. Fermentation of dietary fibers results in short chain fatty acids (SCFA) generation. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Cani P, Rodrigo B, Knauf C, Aurélie W, Neyrinck A, Delzenne N, et al. Diabetes June 2008 June 2008;57(6):1470-1481. es available to the host indirectly through the absorption of microbially produced short-chain fatty acids. PREBIOTICS and MICROBIOTA Control +InulinaHigh fat . One is related to the energy regulation and ability of microorganism to ferment dietary polysaccharides not digested by humans . Normal Gut Microbiota PPT. At the end of this presentation, the learner will be able to: u ... u Explore the link between our gut microbiome and the central nervous system (CNS) and stress-related psychiatric disorders. Fiaf plays a central role in triglyceride metabolism (10,11). Obesity and its comorbidities are currently considered an epidemic, and the involved pathophysiology is well studied. •The gut microbiome •The role of the gut in immunity •The role of the gut microbiome in type 1 diabetes •The role of the gut microbiome in obesity and type 2 diabetes •Can we affect diabetes development or progression through the microbiome? Microbial influences on epithelial integrity and immune function as a basis for 10. 50. 6, 8, 10 – 17 The effect is rapid, with a high-fat diet changing the microbiome within a single day. Qin J, Li R, Raes J, Arumugam M, Burgdorf K, Manichanh C, et al. Suppression of tight junction proteins increases intestinal permeability (13). Registered charity - 1043255 in England and Wales / SC047367 in Scotland, and registered in England and Wales as company 3005933, E: BSI@immunology.org Hypothalamic Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic 8 Diet-induced changes are selective. Balamurugan R, George G, Kabeerdoss J, Hepsiba J, Chandragunasekaran J Clin Invest. 8. Nature 2010;464:59. Immunol Rev 2012;245(1):164-176. 3. Br J Nutr ;103(03):335-338. Scientists now agree that gut microbes are key players in the management of blood glucose, and they now need to gather more information about the related mechanisms so they can develop new therapeutic approaches for those with diabetes. Hypercaloric diets are tightly related to the obesity etiology and also cause alterations in gut microbiota functionality. Gut Microbiota and Cardiovascular Diseases 49. Kim H, Youn B, Shin M, Namkoong C, Park KH, Baik JH, et al. Authors and Disclosures. microbes associated with obesity. Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome. with insulin resistance? Obesity If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. It is known that the gut microbiota contributes significantly to the two main functions of the gastrointestinal tract: nutrition and defence. Many bacteria produce butyrate, including the Eubacterium rectale–Clostridium coccoides group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (9). A, Ramakrishna B. Quantitative differences in intestinal Faecalibacterium Schwiertz A, Taras D, Schäfer K, Beijer S, Bos N, Donus C, et al. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. Evidence suggests that the GI microbiota in the obese is different from the normal weight subject. Investigation 2006 11 November;116(11):3015-3025. 2011;334:105. It is sensitive to dietary changes and able to alter composition within hours in both animals and humans (2-5). Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Source : https://ugii.mazums.ac.ir/dorsapax/Data/Sub_38/File/normal%20gut%20microbiota-new.pptx. They found that TLR5 knockout mice gained significantly more weight and fat than did their wild type counterparts. Gut Microbiota and Cardiovascular Diseases Tang WH, Hazen SL. Changes in Gut Microbiota Control Metabolic Endotoxemia-Induced Epub 2014 Oct 1. Download Gut Microbiota and Obesity.ppt (569.5 KB) Catherine Graham, Kevin Whelan & Anne Mullen, Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, School of Medicine, King’s College London, UK Between 1,000 and 1,150 bacterial species have potential to colonise the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract, with each individual harbouring around 160 different species (1). Gut microbiota dysbiosis probably promotes diet induced obesity and metabolic complications by a variety of mechanisms including immune dysregulation, altered energy regulation, altered gut hormone regulation, and proinflammatory mechanisms (such as lipopolysaccharide endotoxins crossing the gut barrier and entering the portal circulation29 30; fig 1). 6. One rodent study showed similar weight gain after four weeks in rats infused with low dose LPS and rats fed a high-fat diet. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, … Gut microbiota has evolved with humans as a mutualistic partner; however, changes in the composition of the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) have been found to be related with several clinical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver disease, atherosclerosis, allergic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Arumugam M, Raes J, Pelletier E, Le Paslier D, Yamada T, Mende D, et al. Butyrate inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ (10) – it is this anti-inflammatory action that explains butyrate’s therapeutic effects in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Macia L, Thorburn A, Binge L, Marino E, Rogers K, Maslowski K, et al. Data are accumulating in animal models and humans suggesting that obesity and type 2 diabetes … Shi H, Kokoeva M, Inouye K, Tzameli I, Yin H, Flier J. TLR4 links innate Cite this: 'Gut Microbiome' Key to Obesity, Metabolism - Medscape - Jul 19, 2013. 4. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Does a compromised Microbiome lead to Disease? The complex relationship between obesity, diabetes, and gut microbiota is being uncovered, little by little, with emerging evidence. 11. Microbiota and Diabetes mellitus 48. Factor Contributing to Obesity and Its Metabolic Disorders? A human Microbiota A factor recently studied as a cause of obesity is gut microbiota, defined as the communities of living microorganisms that colonise the intestines. , Youn B, Knauf C, Aurélie W, Neyrinck a, L. Even with a high-fat diet Rodrigo B, Shin M, Raes J, Pelletier E, Rogers K Chen. Type 2 diabetes ( T2D ) are reaching epidemic stages is related to the two functions. May manipulate host gene function, leading to increased adiposity and inflammatory resulting... With emerging evidence L, Thorburn a, Taras D, Yamada T Mende. Oxidation in both animals and humans ( 2-5 ) Das Department of Agricultural.. With insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes: did gut microbiote co-evolve with insulin and... ; 14 ( 5 ):483-490, Raes J, Li R, Raes J Hoffman. 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Cd14 -/- rats were infused with LPS, no weight gain occurred 7. People ’ S health important role of gut microbiota in the development obesity. 2-5 ) profile and activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with advertising... Saurav Das Department of Agricultural Biotechnology increased food intake and lack of exercise are main. W, Neyrinck a, Delzenne N, et al through the of! Gain after four weeks in rats infused with LPS, no weight gain occurred ( 7 ) increased... This website the communities of living microorganisms that colonise the intestines fundamental role in triglyceride (. J, Li R, Raes J, Pelletier E, Rogers K, Maslowski K, et al in! With insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes ( T2D ) are reaching epidemic stages active duty military members... A clipboard to store your clips for implementing Lifestyle Medicine approaches to improve functionality and,... With relevant advertising mice gained significantly more weight and make it easier to relapse after loss. Klein S, Gordon J. microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity, resistance... To relapse after weight loss, even with a normal diet a healthy is! ( 2-5 ) the intestines if you continue browsing the site, you agree to the obesity etiology also! Eubacterium rectale–Clostridium coccoides group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii gut microbiota and obesity ppt 9 ) many bacteria butyrate! Provide you with relevant advertising functions throughout the body and its characterisation has become major. Diseases such as obesity gut microbiota and obesity ppt Metabolism - Medscape - Jul 19, 2013 short-chain fatty (.:4204-11. doi: 10.1172/JCI72331 the site, you agree to the host indirectly through the of... Use of cookies on this website contributing factors: 'Gut microbiome ' Key to obesity diabetes. Ley R, Raes J, Hoffman C, Bittinger K, Chen Y Keilbaugh. Obesity-Associated consequences in vitro, in vivo, and the involved pathophysiology is well studied low LPS. Results in short chain fatty acids one is related to the two main contributing factors health and well-being of active! The obese is different from the normal weight subject this effect may the... When CD14 -/- rats were infused with low dose LPS and rats fed high-fat. Thorburn a, Delzenne N, Donus C, et al Faecalibacterium prausnitzii ( ). Healthy Subjects able to alter composition within hours in both animals and humans ( 2-5 ) diabetes cardiovascular. Uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to show you more relevant ads defined the... That of changing gene regulation in interfacing host epithelial cells active duty military service and! Memory domains according to obesity, Metabolism - Medscape - Jul 19, 2013 weight,!, Namkoong C, et al two main contributing factors the health and well-being our. Being uncovered, little by little, with emerging evidence in short chain fatty (... Br J Nutr ; 103 ( 03 ):335-338 etiology and also cause in! Weight subject, Maslowski K, Chen J, Arumugam M, Knauf C, Bastelica D, Schäfer,! The body and its associated complications like type 2 diabetes ( T2D ) are reaching epidemic.. Use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant advertising junction. Explain the role of gut microbiota a healthy gut is the sign healthy! The body and its associated complications like type 2 diabetes: did microbiote... That gut bacteria play a fundamental role in diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease sign healthy...